Edward Stanford (1827-1904) was a publisher, engraver and founder of a “Geographical Establishment” in London. In 1857, he assumed control of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (S.D.U.K.). There he issued the “Family Atlas” (1857-75) and the “London Atlas” (1882), amongst many other publications. Edward was succeeded by his son, also Edward. The firm Stanford’s is still in existence today.
Stanford’s maps are highly regarded for their geographical accuracy and detail.
John Barrow (1735–1774)
Barrow was an English mathematician, naval historian and lexicographer.
Nothing is known of his family. He was initially a teacher of mathematics and navigation aboard ships of the Royal Navy. He retired before 1750 and devoted himself to writing and compiling dictionaries and other works related to his knowledge of mathematics and science.
Barrow’s best-known work was Navigatio Britannica (1750), a practical handbook of navigation and charts. It included an examination of nautical instruments and explained the recently introduced vernier scale.
In 1756, he published the New Geographical Dictionary anonymously in London. In the same year, he also published the first edition of his principal work, ‘A Chronological Abridgment or History of the Discoveries made by Europeans in the different parts of the world.’ In his introduction, Barrow shows a considerable knowledge of astronomical geography and the finding of latitude and longitude by the stars. This was an obvious tribute to his time as a teacher of navigation in the Royal Navy.
Gilles Robert de Vaugondy (1688-1766) and Didier Robert De Vaugondy (1723-1786) were father and son, respectively. Nephew to Pierre Moulard Sanson, Gilles was successful in utilizing the records and materials of the Sanson family. As they often did not use the initials of their first names on their maps, it can be difficult to determine who made a given map. On some maps fils or filio follows the name, in other instances, the author can be determined by the distinctive way each signed his maps: Gilles normally used “M.Robert,” without a last name, and Didier, “Robert de Vaugondy.”
The Atlas Universal, jointly published in Paris in 1757, took 15 years to produce in two versions, 601 copies on large paper and 517 on small paper. It was one of the most important 18th century atlases. The Vaugondy’s employed strict standards for including maps in the atlas and in many cases subjected them to astronomically derived readings for latitude and longitude. Moreover, they used eighteenth century sources to provide their atlas with up-to-date information. Like Ortelius and Mercator before them, the Vaugondy`s listed the sources of their maps.
The cartouches of the maps of the Atlas Universel were highly praised at the time and since. A number of artisans worked on their design and engraving; several were engraved and signed by the Haussard sisters. Among the most pictorial cartouches are found on maps showing the postal routes of Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain and Portugal. They depict postal carriers en route in richly detailed settings.
The Dankerts family was a prominent print and map selling family active in Amsterdam for nearly a century. Cornelis Danckerts (1603-1656) “The Elder” and Justus Danckerts (1635-1701) were by far its most significant members. Maps bearing the names Justus or Theodorus Danckerts were produced and placed in atlases between 1680 and 1700. These are very rare. The title pages and maps of these atlases are undated making it difficult, if not impossible, to place a map in a particular edition. The Danckerts were also noted for production of splendid wall maps of the world and the continents.
Their stock of plates was acquired by R. and J. Ottens who used them for re-issues, having replaced the Danckerts names with their own.
Jacques Chiquet (1673-1721) a French cartographer only published two works. His most famous was a small atlas, called Le Nouveau et Curieux Atlas Geographique et Historiquepublished in 1719. This atlas was likely made for the entertainment of royalty. Also in 1719, he published an atlas of France called Noveau Atlas Francais. His works are quite rare as he died shortly after they were published.
The Society For The Diffusion Of Useful Knowledge was founded by John and Earl Russell, and Henry Brougham, later Lord Chancellor of England in 1827. The Society’s main purpose was to encourage universal literacy by publishing numbers of books of good quality that would be affordable to the poor. The best known of their publications was their atlas produced in the first half of the 19th century, originally entitled “Maps Of The Society For The Diffusion Of Useful Knowledge”, first issued by Baldwin and Cradock, and then re-issued by other publishers.
Nile Behncke (1892 – 1954) was an American artist and museum administrator in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. His father Gustave Behncke was a fresco painter and muralist. Nile worked for his father before joining the Oshkosh Engraving Company in 1914. After World War I, Nile returned to Oshkosh to study art. In 1924, he became the Director of the Oshkosh Public Museum, a position he held until his death. He was not known as a cartographer, but he did produce one map. The 1931 pictorial map of the Fox River Valley was drawn to raise funds for the Museum.
Giovanni Battista Nolli
Giambattista Nolli (1701 – 1756) was an Italian architect and surveyor born in Como. He moved to Rome serving the patrician Albani and Corsini families.
He is best known for his ichnographic* plan of Rome, the Pianta Grande di Roma. His surveying began in 1736 and his engraving ended in 1748. This huge map measures 69 by 82 inches and is composed of 12 individual copper plate engravings. It is now universally known as the Nolli Map. Commissioned by Pope Benedict XIV to create the demarcations for the 14 Rioni or districts of Rome. It was by far the most accurate description of Rome produced to date at a time when the architectural achievement of the Papacy was in full flower.
* ground or floor plans of buildings