Edward Stanford (1827-1904) was a publisher, engraver and founder of a “Geographical Establishment” in London. In 1857, he assumed control of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (S.D.U.K.). There he issued the “Family Atlas” (1857-75) and the “London Atlas” (1882), amongst many other publications. Edward was succeeded by his son, also Edward. The firm Stanford’s is still in existence today.
Stanford’s maps are highly regarded for their geographical accuracy and detail.
The Society For The Diffusion Of Useful Knowledge was founded by John and Earl Russell, and Henry Brougham, later Lord Chancellor of England in 1827. The Society’s main purpose was to encourage universal literacy by publishing numbers of books of good quality that would be affordable to the poor. The best known of their publications was their atlas produced in the first half of the 19th century, originally entitled “Maps Of The Society For The Diffusion Of Useful Knowledge”, first issued by Baldwin and Cradock, and then re-issued by other publishers.
John Senex (1678- 1740) was an English cartographer, engraver and explorer. He was also an astrologer and geographer to Queen Anne of Great Britain. He was a contemporary of the cartographer Herman Moll and a rival. In collaboration with Charles Price and James Maxwell he produced many fine maps of the world, the continents and various countries. During his collaboration with Charles Price, Senex created a series of engravings for the London Almanacs and in 1714 he published together with Maxwell an English Atlas.
He also had an interest in early road maps. In 1719, he issued an updated edition of Ogilby’s Brittania in miniature featuring the strip type road maps of England and Wales.
As a footnote, he was one of the cartographers who perpetuated the depiction of California as an island instead of part of mainland North America. Many of these maps are, as a result, appealing to certain collectors.
Born in Frankfurt-on-Main, Jakob von Sandrart (1630-1708) learned his trade as both a painter and engraver in the Netherlands from his uncle Joachim von Sandrart (1606-1688) and later from Willem Hondius in Danzig. He established his own business as an art dealer in Nuremberg in 1656. He producing over 400 portraits and several maps utilizing foreign sources as was customary for Low Country artists in the 17th century. He also employed Johann Babtist Homann as a young engraver.
Nicolas Sanson (1600-1667) often called the Father of French cartography, was born in Abbeville where as a young man at the age of 18 he was said to have compiled his first map. For this purpose he prepared a number of beautifully drawn maps, one of which came to the attention of Louis XIII. In due course the King appointed him “ Geographe Ordinaire du Roi”.
In preparation of his major atlas, “Cartes Generales de Toutes les Parties du Monde”, Sanson employed a number of engravers, one of whom, M. Tavernier engraved important maps showing the post roads, rivers and waterway system of France (1632-34) and a map of the British Isles (1640). In all Sanson produced about 300 maps of which two of North America were particularly influential: “Amerique Septentrionale” (1650) and Le Canada ou Nouvelle France (1656). While his maps did not compare asthetically to those of his Dutch counterparts, they were valued for their geographic superiority. After Sanson’s death the business was carried on by his two surviving sons, Guillaume who died in 1703 and Adrian who died in 1708. His first son Nicolas predeceased him.
It is generally accepted that the great age of French cartography originated with the work of Nicolas Sanson but credit must go also to his grandson Pierre Moulard Sanson, A. Hubert Jaillot (1632 – 1712) and Pierre Duval for re-engraving his maps, many still unprinted after his death, and re-publishing them in face of strong competition from the Dutch, who continued to dominate the market until the end of the 17th century. Gilles Robert de Vaugondy (1688-1766) and his son Didier inherited Sanson’s materials and carried on his emphasis on accuracy over decoration.
Matthias Seutter (1678 – 1757) served as an apprentice to mapmaker J. B. Homann in the early 18th century. He established his own business as cartographer and publisher of maps and globes in Vienna and later in Augsburg. He was named Geographer to the Imperial Court and after dedicating his large atlas to Karl VI, Seutter was awarded the title of “Kaiserlicher Geograph”.
Attractive as Homann’s maps, Seutter’s work is noteworthy for its minute detail, color and large decorative cartouches. His greatest works were thought to be the Atlas Novus (1728 – 1745) and the Grosser Atlas (c. 1735).